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431 – Date of Palladius’s (now consecrated as bishop?) ministry to existing Christian communities in Ireland, sent by Pope Celestine I (Prosper of Aquitaine). Possible date for Patrick’s abduction to Ireland by pirates in the Thomas SLP (single, ‘late’ Patrick) model.

432 – Patrick: supposed date of return to and ministry in Ireland (Annals of Ulster);

440+ Poss as late as 448, Germanus makes second visit to Britain to put down Pelagian heresy. Possible date of Patrick’s return to Britain from Gaul/Ireland according to Thomas SLP model. Begins training as deacon, then bishop. Leo I becomes Pope (to 461).

459 – Date of Patrick’s return to Ireland in the Thomas SLP model; noted in the AC as his ‘passing’, or ‘going to the Lord.’

470++ – Suggested (Thomas 1981) date for Patrick’s letter to Coroticus, possible king of Strathclyde. Floruit of King Coroticus (either in Cardigan or Strathclyde) on same model. If so, Coroticus is raiding in Ireland at this period and selling Christian slaves to the Scotti.

493 – Possible date for death of St Patrick on SLP model of Thomas, but suspect.

521 – Birth of Colm Cille at Gartan, Donegal

563 – Colm Cille exiled from Ulster… lands in Iona (AC).

565 – Founding of monastery at Iona (ASC).

570 – Earliest date range for the foundation of the monastic complex at Carrowmore (C14 dating)

572 – Adomnán’s reference to two cousins of Colm Cille’s, Eochaid and Báetán (High kings of the Cenél nEogain, dying violently as revealed in a vision

575 – Conference of Druim Cett in Ulster (now Mullagh or Daisy Hill near Limavady in County Derry) between Aedan mac Gabrain and Aed mac Ainmerech (Cenél Conaill) confirms independence of Scottic Dál Riata from Irish kingdoms and enshrines ownership of tribute and hosting responsibilities. Probably later confirmed in composition in early C7 of the Senchus Fer nAlban. Debates banning of Bards from Ireland. Probably convened by of Colm Cille..

596 – Death of Aéd mac Ainmirech; ?kingship of Tara assumed by Colmán Rímid (father of Fín, whose son, Flann Fina, becomes king Aldfrith of Northumbria) and Áed Sláine

597 – Traditional date of the Death of St Columba at Iona; succeeded by Baithne (but poss 593).

600 – Battle of Cúl Slemma: victory for Colmán Rímid over Conall Cú, son of Aéd mac Ainmirech

602 – Death of Colmán Rímid (AU); death of Conall Cú (Lacey 2013, 31); succeeded as king of Cenél Conaill by Máel Coba (to 613).

606 – Probable date of death of Aedan MacGabrain aged 70+ after 34-year reign in Dalriada (607 in the AC). Succeeded by Eochaid Buide (to 629); Buide may become King of Picts at some point in his reign (AU)

612 – Death of Áed Uaridnach, king of Aileach and traditional patron of St Mura’s foundation at Fahan.

613 –Death of Máel Coba (Cenél Conaill); succeeded by Domnall mac Áedo

617? – Æthelfrith is ambushed and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia at Bawtry in the Battle of the River Idle. Oswald, Æthelfrith’s son, flees Northumbria and takes refuge in the court Dál Riata with Oswy and sister Æbbe. Half-brother Eanfrith flees to Pictland.

618 – Tide mill constructed at Nendrum monastery on Strangford Lough

619 – Death of Fiachra, the ‘other founder’ of Derry ((AU, AFM), AT, CS, Aros etc); he was a nephew of Aéd mac Ainmirech (Lacey 2013, 32)

628 – Domnall mac Áedo (Cenél Conaill ) succeeds to kingship of Tara.

629 – Death of Eochaid Buide, king of Dál Riata (from 608). Succeeded by son Conadd Cerr who dies the same year in Battle of Fid Eoin fighting against Ulster (or 628 in AU).; succeeded by brother Domnall Brecc to 642/3. Saxon atheling possibly fighting in Ireland for and with Conadd Cerr (ATig, CS, AClon).

– In Southern Ireland discussions begin about resolving the ‘Paschal question’ over timing of Easter and form of tonsure etc; envoys sent to Rome

630 – approx (or 628) Domnall Brecc succeeds father Eochaid Buide (his grandfather was Aedan MacGabrain) as king of Scotic Dál Riata.

– Synod held at Magh Lene in County Offaly to resolve Paschal question and other matters of Roman orthodoxy

632 – Death Of Mohammed at Medina

634 – Oswald returns from exile to claim Northumbrian kingdom, with ?brother Oswiu and a retinue including Dalriadan and Ionan warriors. He defeats and kills King Cadwallon at the Battle of Denisesburn after raising his cross at Heavenfield. Oswald probably aided and accompanied by warriors from Scottish Dalriada and monks from Iona.

635 – Oswald sends for Aidan, an Irish monk/bishop from the Scottish island of Iona, to convert Northumbria to Irish Christianity. Aidan establishes monastery on the island of Lindisfarne

637 – Battle of Mag Rath in Ireland; defeat of Domnall Brech’s allies inc Congall Ceach of the Dál nAraide. Dál Riata effectively cedes rights over Ulster. Possible involvement of Bernician warbands.

652 – Finnán, possibly son of Colmán Rímid, builds church on Lindisfarne, of hewn oak thatched with reeds (HE III.25)

– Death of Ségéne, Abbot of Iona (AU, AT)

657 – Cumméne becomes Abbot of Iona (to 669).

– Earliest date for composition of Tirechan’s Life of St Patrick

664 – Council of Whitby (Streanæshealh). King Oswiu convenes synod to determine which church to follow: Iona or Rome. Decides in favour of Rome.

– Bishop Colmán abdicates from Lindisfarne and is replaced by Eata, but only as Abbot, not as bishop; Colman founds monasteries in County Mayo including Inishboffin.
– Death of Cumméne, Abbot of Iona; succeeded by Failbe

679-?82 – Probable date of Arculf’s pilgrimage to the Holy Land and, on his attempted return, his arrival by ‘accident’ at Iona where he is interrogated by Adomnan.

685 – King Aldfrith (Flann Fina: Ecgfrith’s half-brother) succeeds, probably under the influence of Cuthbert on Lindisfarne; Aldfrith may be on Iona at the time of Cuthbert’s prophecy. Ecgfrith is taken to Iona to be buried.

686 – Adamnan of Iona visits Northumbria, esp Jarrow. Adomnan gives Aldfrith a copy of the de Locis Sanctis dictated to him by Arculf.

697 – Synod of Birr: promulgation of the Cáin Adomnán; Muirchu, author of a Life of St Patrick, probably present

700 – Fergal mac Máele Dúin becomes king of Aileach

704 – Death of Aldfrith at Driffield.

– Death of Adomnan of Iona; succeeded by Conamail.

716 – Iona capitulates and agrees to follow Roman rule. AU

722 – Death of Fergal mac Máele Dúin, Cenél nÉogain and High King of Ireland; father of Niall Frossach

c.730 – Possible date for carving of Fahan cross slab under patronage of Áed Allán

734 – Áed Allán becomes High King of Tara

743 – Death of Áed Allán, king of Ailech and High King of Ireland, in the battle of Almain, against Murchad mac Brain of the Uí Dúnlainge, the king of Leinster

– Niall Frossach of the Cenél nÉogain and brother of Áed Allán, becomes king of the Tír Eogain

763 – Niall Frossach of the Cenél nÉogain becomes High King of Tara

c.770 – Niall Frossach abdicates in favour of his nephew, Máel Dúin mac Áedo Alláin, an.d retires to Iona

778 – Death of Niall Frossach of the Cenél nÉogain, High King of Tara, on Iona.

788 – The ‘burning’ of Derry (AU)

789 – Cenél Conaill ‘overthrown’ in battle of Clóitech by Aéd Oirdnide, son of Niall Frossach of the Cenél nÉogain. The so-called ‘Armageddon’ battle. From now on it is possible that the kings of the Cenél nÉogain move their kingship site to Grianán of Aileach, from Elagh Mor.

798 – Viking attack on Iona

802 – 2nd Viking raid on Iona

806 – 3rd Viking raid on Iona

807 – Iona community retreats to Kells for safety (poss. as late as 814).

819 – Death of Aéd Oirdnide; succeeded by Murchad mac Maíle.

823 – Murchad fails to retain Kinghsip of Tara for the Cenél Éogain; he is removed from the kingship by Niall son of Aéd Viking attacks increase in NE Ireland.

825 – Vikings sack Movilla and Downpatrick

– St Blathmac murdered on Iona (AU)

830 – Possible late date for the composition of the Tripartite Life of St Patrick

833 – Vikings (Gallu) routed at Derry by Niall Caill, whose rule of Tara is dated to this year, and Murchad.

841 – Dublin becomes the principal longphort of the Vikings in Ireland.

849 – Flannacán son of Echaid, king of Dál Araidi of the North, was killed by the Cenél Eógain (AU)

855/6 – Gallgoídil (Foreigner Gaels) appear in the Irish annals for three consecutive years. A Great War breaks out between the heathen and Mael Sechlainn, overking of the Southern Uí Neill, with his Gallgoídil allies (AU;CS) Slane and Lusk monasteries attacked, ?from base at Dublin.

859 – Cerball of Osraige allies with Óláfr and Ívarr to attack Meath; Royal meeting at Rathugh: Cerball submits to Mael Sechlainn and swaps allegiance.

– Óláfr and Ívarr ally with Northern Ui Neill king Aed Finnliath. At some point Aed gives daughter to Óláfr in marriage (FA)

860 – Cerball and Mael Sechlainn lead army against Northern Uí Néill; fail to secure decisive victory.

861-2 – Aed Finnliath and Óláfr lead raids against Meath.

862 – Mael Sechlainn dies; Aed Finnliath of the Cenél nÉogain becomes High King of Tara
866 – (AU) U866.4 Aed son of Niall plundered all the strongholds of the foreigners i.e. in the territory of the North, both in Cenél Eógain and Dál Araidi, and took away their heads, their flocks, and their herds from camp by battle (?). A victory was gained over them at Loch Febail and twelve score heads taken thereby.
(AFM) M864.3 A complete muster of the North was made by Aedh Finnliath, so that he plundered the fortresses of the foreigners, wherever they were in the North, both in Cinel Eoghain and Dal Araidhe; and he carried off their cattle and accoutrements, their goods and chattles. The foreigners of the province came together at Loch Feabhail Mic Lodain. After Aedh, King of Ireland, had learned that this gathering of strangers was on the borders of his country, he was not negligent in attending to them, for he marched towards them with all his forces; and a battle was fought fiercely and spiritedly on both sides between them. The victory was gained over the foreigners, and a slaughter was made of them. Their heads were collected to one place, in presence of the king; and twelve score heads were reckoned before him, which was the number slain by him in that battle, besides the numbers of them who were wounded and carried off by him in the agonies of death, and who died of their wounds some time afterwards.
866 – Óláfr and Ásl attack Fortriu, plunder Pictland and take hostages

– Aed Finnliath attacks Viking camps in North-east Ireland

868 – Battle at Kilineer (Co. Louth): Óláfr’s son Carlus dies in battle against Aed Finnliath (several chronicles)

873 – Ívarr dies (CS) AU says he was ‘king of all the Norđmanni of all Ireland and Britain. Dublin interests pass to his son Bárđr

879 – Death of St Findan at Rheinau Abbey

882 – Death of abbot of Derry, Muirchertach sone of Niall.

888 – Viking army defeats Flann Sinna, King of Tara.

c. 895-900 – Poem Ard na scéla tells the story of Duibhlinn, daughter of Éichnechán of the Síl Lugdach, who id married to a Viking chief, Cathais, who has a stronghold on Doagh island and who is in conflict with Cathalán mac Máel Fabhaill of Carrickbraghey. (Lacey 2012)

902 – The expulsion of the Norse kings from Dublin leads to fallout across the irish Sea province. Partial narrative survives in Three Fragmentary Annals.

904 – Northmen slain at Strath Erenn (or 906 acc Carver)

– Attack on Elagh Mor (Aileach) by Vikings (AFM; AU; CS), coinciding with an internecine war among Cenél nÉogain – the sons of Aed Finnliath

905 – (Preparation was made for a battle between the two sons of Aed, i.e. Domnall and Niall, and it was prevented through the entreaty of the Cenél Eógain (AU)

908 – An expedition by the Cenél Eógain, i.e. by Domnall son of Aed and by Niall son of Aed, and Tlachtga was burned by them. Death of Diarmait, ‘princeps’ of Derry

917 – Battle of Mag Feimin. Niall Glúndub mac Áedo fights Ragnall ua Ímair, whose Norse forces win. Death in battle of Gartnel, the ‘taoisech of Cairrge Brachaidhe’. Snow and extreme ice and cold in Ireland. Sigtryggr recovers Dublin for the Norse. (AU)

919 – Niall Glúndub mac Áedo, King of the Cenél nEógain and of Tara, assembles coalition against Dublin Vikings: defeated and killed at Dublin (AU) in disastrous battle, with many senior fatalities among northern and Southern Ui Neill

– Rapid expansion of Viking settlement at Dublin
921 – (AU) U921.7 A fleet of the foreigners came into Loch Febail, i.e. Acolb with thirty-two ships. Cennrig was quickly(?) and completely abandoned by them, except for a few who remained behind in it through sloth. Fergal son of Domnall, king of the North, was in hostilities with them, and killed the crew of one of their ships and wrecked the ship and took its booty. Another naval force was at Cenn Magair on the coast of Tír Conaill, i.e. under the son of Uathmarán son of Barid, with twenty ships.
926 – Dublin fleet sails for Strangford Lough under Hálfdan, son of Guđrøđr, establishes camp; sacks Dunseverick. Establishes camp in Dundalk Bay.

– Hálfdan killed by Muirchertach, son of Niall, king of N. Úi Néill and Cenél nÉogain

938 – Kings of Tara and army of Muirchertach mac Néill (of Aileach) besiege Dublin

939 – Óláfr Guđrøđsson re- invades and takes York; Succeeded in Dublin by Óláfr Sigtrygsson (Cuarán). Possible shoe-based hybrid Irish/Norse inauguration ceremony

– Aileach taken by storm by Dublin fleet; Muirchertach taken hostage; ransomed ? by church

941 – Death of Óláfr Guđrøđsson; succeeded by Cuarán in York

– Muirchertach attcks Hebrides (under control of dynasty of Ívarr)

943 – Dublin Vikings ally with king of Cenél Conaill: Muirchertach son of Niall dies, killed by the king of Dublin at Ardee; Vikings attack Armagh, burial site of the kings of Cenél nÉogain

– Notice of a Viking camp on Lough Foyle, sheltering a fleet (AFM; CS)

990 – Derry plundered by ‘the Danes’ (AU)